פרופ' יעקב רופא
פרופ' יעקב רופא
B.A. degree in Psychology and Sociology, Bar-Ilan University, Israel
Completed all requirements for M.A. degree in Clinical Psychology, except for the thesis, Bar-Ilan University, Israel
Ph.D. degree in Psychology, University of Hull, Hull, England
THESIS: Rofé, Y. (1973). Verbal conditioning among repressors and
sensitizers. Unpublished, University of Hull, Hull, England. (Supervisor: Prof. J.P. N. Phillips).
1970 – 1980 Instructor, Department of Psychology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel
1980 – 1985 Lecturer, Interdisciplinary Department of Social Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel
1982 – 1983 Visiting Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Rutgers Medical School, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA
1985 – 1989 Senior Lecturer and Tenure, Interdisciplinary Department of Social Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel
1988 – 1989 Visiting Professor, Department of Psychology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, 63130, USA
1989 – Present Associate Professor, Interdisciplinary Department of Social Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel
1990 – 1997 Chair, Interdisciplinary Department of Social Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel
2004 – Present Chair, Interdisciplinary Department of Social Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel
TEACHING, RESEARCH, AND CLINICAL EXPERIENCE
1967 – 1970 Research and teaching assistant, Department of Psychology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel
1973 – 1986 Training Institute of University Students for Teaching, Ministry of Education, Givataiim, Israel
1973 – Present Department of Psychology and Interdisciplinary Studies of Social Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel
1980 – 1985 Administration of Intelligence Tests, Institute for Gifted Children, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel
1982 – 1983 Clinical work for psychiatric patients in the following institutions:
1) Department of Psychiatry, Rutgers Medical School, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA
2) Veterans Administration, Medical Center, Lyons, NJ, 07939, USA
3) John F. Kennedy Rehabilitation Institute, Edison, NJ, 03818, USA
MAIN RESEARCH INTERESTS
- Critique of psychopathology theories and developing alternative models
- Critique of fear theories and new conditioning models
- Development of an integrative theory of therapeutic intervention
- Affiliation in stressful situations
- Repressive and unconscious processes
Organizing an international conference, "The future of Psychopathology: Theories and Therapeutic Methods", Bar-Ilan, July, 2001.
Organizing an international conference, "Rationality and Irrationality: Psychiatric Disorders and Suicide", Bar-Ilan, July, 2007.
LIST OF PUBLICATIONS
Until last promotion:
Rofé, Y. (1989). Repression and Fear: A New Approach to Resolve the Crisis in Psychopathology. Washington, DC: Hemishpere. (323 pages)
- Rofé, Y., Lewin, I. and Padeh, B. (1977). Affiliation before and after child delivery as a function of repression-sensitization. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 16, 311-315.
- Rofé, Y., Padeh, B. and Serr, D.M. (1978). Repressive versus sensitive personality types and the effect upon reproduction and labor. Proceedings of the International Society Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sorono Symposia, 243-249.
- Rofé, Y. and Lewin, I. (1979). Who adjusts better: Repressors or sensitizers? Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 875-879.
- Rofé, Y., Padeh, B. and Serr, D. M. (1979). Repression-sensitization, anxiety, number of childbirths, prenatal training programme and behavior during childbirth. Proceedings of the International Society of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology Sorono Symposia, 785-796.
- Rofé, Y. and Lewin, I. (1980). Attitudes toward an enemy and personality in a war environment. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 4, 97-106.
- Rofé, Y. and Lewin, I. (1980). Daydreaming in a war environment. Journal of Mental Imagery, 4, 59-75.
- Rofé, Y. and Lewin, I. (1981). Emotion during pregnancy and delivery as a function of repression-sensitization and number of childbirths. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 6, 163-173.
- Rofé, Y. and Weller, L. (1981). Attitudes toward the enemy as a function of level of threat. British Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 217-218.
- Rofé, Y. and Weller, L. (1981). Ethnic group prejudice and class in Israel. Jewish Journal of Sociology, 23, 101-111.
- Rofé, Y. and Lewin, I. (1982). The effect of war environment on dreams and sleep habits. In C. D. Spielberger, I. G. Sarason and N. A. Milgram (Eds.), Stress and Anxiety (vol. 8, pp. 67-79) Washington: Hemisphere Publishing Corp.
- Rofé, Y. and Lewin, I. (1982). Psycho-social factors and blood pressure during pregnancy and delivery. Psychophysiology, 19, 7-12.
- Rofé, Y. and Lewin, I. (1982). Repression-Sensitization and socioeconomic level. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8, 324-329.
- Rofé, Y. and Goldberg, J. (1983). Prolonged exposure to a war environment and its effects on blood pressure of pregnant women. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 56, 305-311.
- Rofé, Y. (1984). Stress and affiliation: A utility theory. Psychological Review, 91, 235-250.
- Rofé, Y. (1985). The assessment of marital happiness. In J. N. Butcher and C. D. Spielberger (Eds.), Advances in Personality Assessment (Vol. 4, pp. 55-82). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
- Rofé, Y., and Algom, D. (1985). Accuracy of remembering postdelivery pain. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 60, 99-105.
- Rofé, Y., Hoffman, M. and Lewin, I. (1985). Patient affiliation in major illness. Psychological Medicine, 15, 895-896.
- Lewin, I. and Rofé, Y. (1985). Repression and illusion: Mental disturbances or mental health. Israel Psychological Association Quarterly, 3, 12-14.
- Rofé, Y., and Lewin, I. (1986). Affiliation in an unavoidable stressful situation: An examination of utility theory. British Journal of Social Psychology, 25, 119-127.
- Rofé, Y., Lewin, I., and Hoffman, M. (1987). Affiliation patterns among cancer patients. Psychological Medicine, 17, 419-424.
- Rofé, Y., and Lewin, I. (1988). Social comparison or utility: An experimental examination. Social Behavior and Personality, 16, 5-10.
- Weller, L., and Rofé, Y. (1988). Marital happiness among mixed and homogeneous marriages in Israel. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50, 245-254.
Since last promotion:
Rofé, Y. (2000). The Rationality of Psychological Disorders: Psychobizarreness Theory. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
This book challenges the validity of all traditional theories in psychopathology. It offers instead a revolutionary theory, Psychobizarreness Theory, which accounts for the development and treatment of both neurotic and psychotic disorders in conscious and rational terms. Additionally, the book proposes a new theory of conditioning, the Rational-Automatic Theory of Fear, which accounts for the development of specific fears among both humans and animals. The main message of the book is that the widespread conviction that human beings are basically irrational is wrong, and that the application of rationality to psychopathology is a necessary condition for the understanding and treatment of psychiatric disorders. This approach is consistent with the growing recognition of the role of rationality in social sciences, an issue which was the subject of 2 recent winners of the Nobel Prize. The book contains about 2,000 references and more than 400 pages. It received positive reviews in both Contemporary Psychology (Lester, 2002) and Psychiatric Services (Sarma & Garfield, 2001).
- Rofé, Y., Blittner, M., and Lewin, I. (1993). Emotional experiences during the three trimesters of pregnancy. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 49, 3-12
- Rofé, Y. (2002). Psychobizarreness theory: A response to Lester's review. Contemporary Psychology, 47, 632.
- Rofé, Y. (2006). Affiliation tendencies on the eve of the Iraqi war: A utility theory perspective. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 1781-1789.
- Rofé, Y. (2008). Does repression exist? Memory, pathogenic, unconscious, and clinical evidence. Review of General Psychology, 12, 63-85.
- Rofé, Y. The rationality of irrationality: The Rational-Choice Theory of Neurosis.
- Rofé, Y. Behavioral and cognitive theories of fear and phobia: A critical review
- Rofé, Y. The Rational-Automatic Theory of specific phobia
- Rofé, Y. The myth of biological theories of neurosis and psychosis: A critical review.
- Behavior during child delivery as a function of repression, sensitization and number of childbirths. Annual National Conference of the Israel Family Planning Association, Tel Aviv, May, 1977.
- Fear, anxiety and pain during pregnancy and delivery as a function of repression-sensitization and number of childbirths. Annual National Conference of the Israel Family Planning Association, March, 1978.
- Proximity to terrorist attacks as a stress in two developmental towns in Israel: A series of studies. The 2nd International Conference on Psychological Stress and Adjustment in times of War and Peace, 1978.
- Prejudice in Israel: Ethnicity or social class. Annual National Conference of the Israel Association of Sociologists, Ramat-Gan, April, 1978.
- The struggle of children with stress situations. Annual National Conference of the Israel Association of Social Workers, Jerusalem, November, 1978.
- Attitudes towards Arabs as a function of repression-sensitization. Annual National Conference of the Israel Association of Sociologists, Haifa, March, 1979.
- Attitudes towards different kinds of Arabs as a function of repression-sensitization, ethnicity and strength of religious convictions. Annual National Conference of the Israel Association of Psychologists, Ramat-Gan, March, 1979.
- Stress and Affiliation: A utility theory. Annual National Conference of the Israel Association of Psychologists, February, 1985.
- The role of hostility in essential hypertension. The 2nd National Symposium on Hypertension in the Community, Jerusalem, December, 1985.
- Conversation hour: A new approach to resolve the crisis in psychopathology. The 97th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, New Orleans, August, 1989.
- Chair: The Future of Psychopathology: Theories and Therapeutic Methods, Ramat-Gan, July, 2001.
- The rationality of psychological disorder. The Future of Psychopathology: Theories and Therapeutic Methods, Ramat-Gan, July, 2001.
- A rational approach to the treatment of neuroses. The Future of Psychopathology: Theories and Therapeutic Methods, Ramat-Gan, July, 2001.
- The rationality of craziness: The Rational-Choice Theory of psychiatric disorders. Center for the Study of Rationality, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, March 2006.
- The problematic state of traditional theories of psychopathology and the Rational-Choice Theory of Neurosis. The Israeli Psychiatry Organization, Eilat, November 2008 (Central lecture).
I have conducted research concerning with various areas of stress, and have made an impressive impact on scientific research. My research impact is demonstrated by the fact that I have been cited over 200 times, often in high-status journals (see attached document).
During my extensive research career, I have made two major theoretical contributions to the area of psychology. First, in a classic article, published in Psychological Review, I developed a new theory, entitled "Stress and affiliation: A utility theory". According to this theory, the strength of affiliation tendencies is the function of perceived benefit and damage that may be caused by being with others. My utility theory is capable of accounting for seemingly incompatible evidence from laboratory and real-life research in rational terms, and has gained much attention by various investigators throughout the world. I have published several studies relating to this theory, and continue to elaborate it in my recently published article (Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 2006).
My second theoretical contribution concerns a new theory of psychopathology, published in my book, "The Rationality of Psychological Disorders: Psychobizarreness Theory" (Rofé, 2000). Thoroughly reviewing relevant research, I demonstrate that traditional theories of psychopathology lack empirical validity and are unable to account for many fundamental issues in this area. As an alternative, my Psychobizarreness Theory (PBT) claims that a necessary condition for gaining a breakthrough in the understanding of neuroses and psychoses is the abandonment of the axiomatic assumption, common to all theories of psychopathology, that these disorders are determined by irrational and involuntary mechanisms. In line with relevant research findings challenging the validity of the Freudian concept of repression, I define this notion in conscious-rational terms. Moreover, contrary to Freud's simplistic assumption of the unconscious, I demonstrate that patients' unawareness regarding the underlying cause of their behavior, typical to every neurotic/psychotic patient, is the consequence of a sophisticated self-deceptive process. Using this revolutionary idea that neurotic and psychotic disorders are rational coping mechanisms that the individual uses when he is faced with intolerable levels of stress, I succeed in integrating the seemingly incompatible findings of rival theoretical approaches. Additionally, my theory can account for the success or failure of different therapeutic intervention stemming from various theoretical backgrounds, and suggests a new humanistic and rational therapeutic approach.
My recent book has received positive reviews in both Contemporary Psychology (Lester, 2002) and Psychiatric Services (Sarma & Garfield, 2001). I continue to promote my theory, and am now preparing its revised version, entitled "The Rational-Choice Theory of Neurosis".
I have also made an important contribution in accounting for the development of fear and phobias. My theory, entitled "Rational-Automatic Theory", demonstrated that by changing Pavlovian models of fear and taking the organism's cognitive assessment of the fearsome situation into consideration, conditioning paradigms can integrate all laboratory and field studies of fear and phobia into one theoretical paradigm. This theory was suggested in my book "The Rationality of Psychological disorders" (2000).
In the recent years, there is a bitter controversy regarding the existence of repression and the scientific status of psychoanalysis. In an attempt to settle this dispute, I conducted a comprehensive evaluation of repression, relating to memory, pathogenic effects, the unconscious, and clinical evidence. My final conclusion is that there are serious challenges regarding the existence of repression and the psychoanalytic theory in general. This long review article (56 pages in double-spacing) has just been accepted for publication in the APA journal Review of General Psychology.